While there are a number of charting options out there that utilize jQuery or other technologies, I'm currently looking into look at those offered from two companies: Highcharts and Telerik - including extensions and open source projects available to complement them and ease usage in ASP.NET MVC. I figured I'd share my research so far...
Highcharts MVC is "an Open-source Highcharts wrapper for ASP.NET MVC which aims to provide a better, easier and cleaner API." Currenty the source is hosted on GitHub. This has also been made available as a NuGet package. Three examples showcase the ability to use the library in simple, advance, and AJAX scenarios. More information is available at the developer's website. Developed by Guilherme Oenning.
Highcharts .Net (WebForms)
Highcharts .Net encapsulates the Highcharts API on ASP.net controls making it easier to use. It is free for non-commerical use. At this time it doesn't seem to formally support ASP.NET MVC at this time (only WebForms), however there is a discussion of usage with MVC 3. Note: It looks like a hack / workaround to me. Examples and more information at the developer's website. Developed by André Paulovich and André Castro.
Telerik Extensions for MVC
Telerik Extensions for ASP.NET MVC is "a comprehensive set of native MVC, jQuery-powered UI components that help you deliver richer apps to market faster." Charting is offered out of box, and examples exist. The examples range from simple to complex and all come with the source code.
The extension is HTML5-based, and chart rendering utilizes lightweight SVG-powered engine for modern browsers with a fallback to VML for legacy browsers.
Aside from open source projects, Telerik Extensions for ASP.NET MVC comes in at a hefty price tag of $999, and is really only suitable for businesses that can afford it. The Telerik code is hosted on CodePlex.
Kendo MVC Extensions for ASP.NET
Dotnet.Highcharts definitely has the most examples, so that is a win in my book. It makes getting started and understanding the code that much easier. KedoUI is still quite new, but it looks slick and so I'll be giving the DataViz a try as well with their free thirty-day trial. While Telerik Extensions provides a stable, robust product, paying a thousand bucks for MVC extensions seems too heavy for me, especially since I mainly require charting.